Which breed is right for me?
To determine this you have to answer several questions.
When you have answered ALL of these questions, and have written a job description for your future chickens, go through The Livestock Conservancy’s Pick a Chick Chart to help select the appropriate breed for you.
Which breeds are quiet & calm?
Asiatic breeds, like the Brahma and Cochin, are the calmest and quietest. The Mediterranean breeds, like the Leghorn and Minorca, are the most active and the noisiest. The American, Continental, and English breeds fall in between.
What breeds of chickens do well in extreme cold?
Heavy breeds with small combs and wattles are more cold-hardy and not as prone to frostbite. As examples the Chantecler, which was developed in Canada, has a cushion comb, and the Buckeye, which was developed in Ohio, has a pea comb.
What breeds of chickens do well hot and humid areas? Chickens that have large combs and wattles (that help dissipate heat) are best suited for hot, humid areas.
Which breeds will hatch their own chicks?
Most chicken breeds have had the broodiness, or the inclination to sit on their eggs, bred out of them. When the hen starts to set she quits laying eggs. Most people, both historically and in the current times, wanted their chickens to lay more eggs, thus, they selected for chickens that were not broody. Some hens will still go broody. Some of these will be good mothers. If you have a broody hen in your flock, and you want to develop this trait, keep the hen for next years breeding. Keep some of her sons as well, as they will pass this trait on to their female offspring.
What is a Heritage Chicken?
The Livestock Conservancy defined Heritage Chicken in April 2009. The abbreviated definition reads: “A Heritage Egg can only be produced by an American Poultry Association Standard breed. A Heritage Chicken is hatched from a Heritage egg sired by an American Poultry Association Standard breed established prior to the mid-20th century, is slow growing, naturally mated with a long productive outdoor life.” Click here to see the full explanation.
What is a Standard chicken?
A Standard chicken has a description that has been adopted by the American Poultry Association. Heritage Chickens must be APA Standard breeds.
Are all of the breeds of chickens on The Livestock Conservancy’s Conservation Priority List considered Heritage?
Almost. Only a few are not considered Heritage because they are not APA Standard breeds. They are the Iowa Blue, Manx Rumpy (a.k.a. Persian Rumpless), Nankin, and Russian Orloff. The Nankin is a truly great, historic, natural bantam, though it is not an APA Standard breed.
Is a chicken Heritage if it does not meet the breed Standard as defined by APA?
No. A breed must meet the Standard to be considered Heritage. That is why it is important for those interested in marketing their chickens as Heritage to know the Standard for their breed and, if breeding, to select to the Standard. Because many breeder flocks have not been selected for production qualities and weight requirements as defined by the Standard, many birds will not qualify as Heritage. Producers need to know the quality of the breeding stock from which their production chickens come so they can legitimately claim the Heritage Chicken label.
Is a chicken Heritage if it is raised in confinement?
No. Heritage Chicken must be raised outdoors on pasture to qualify. Why? The natural exposure of chickens to elements and naturally occurring pathogens will ensure that these breeds will retain robust immune systems and healthy constitutions. Additionally, outdoor foraging tests their legs and bodies. If a bird can not walk, actively forage, and naturally mate, it needs to be culled (or removed from the breeding group).
Is a chicken Heritage if it is produced through artificial insemination (AI)?
No. All breeding stock must produce offspring through natural mating to be considered Heritage. Birds conceived through AI may not be labeled and marketed as Heritage, regardless of the purity of their bloodlines.
Who polices the term Heritage'?
Consumers ultimately assure the authenticity of the Heritage label. By knowing the meaning of the definition and knowing what they are buying, they can protect the meaning of Heritage and its value in the marketplace. The Livestock Conservancy, the Standard Bred Poultry Institute, Good Shepherd Turkey Ranch, and others will continue to educate the public and advocate for the honest use of this term.
I have heard Freedom Rangers, Label Rouge, sex-links, and other commercial chickens referred to as Heritage? Are they?
No. They don’t fit the first point of the definition: “Heritage Chicken must be from parent and grandparent stock of breeds recognized by the American Poultry Association (APA) prior to the mid-20th century; whose genetic line can be traced back multiple generations; and with traits that meet the APA Standard of Perfection guidelines for the breed. Heritage Chicken must be produced and sired by an APA Standard breed.”
The Label Rouge is a French production system that has enjoyed considerable success. For a nice summary of the system see Label Rouge: Pasture-based Poultry Production in France by Anne Fanatico and Holly Born.
What is the difference between a meat, egg layer, and dual purpose chicken?
Meat birds have a blockier body that fills out with muscle for meat. It will lay fewer eggs, as a general rule. The egg layer is leaner and rangier in body type. It will lay more eggs, as a general rule. The dual purpose chicken is intended to grow a good body, adequate for putting meat on the table, and lay a nice quantity of eggs. The dual purpose chicken will not provide as large a carcass as a meat bird, nor lay as many eggs as an egg layer.
What is the difference between bantam and large fowl, sometimes confusingly called Standard birds?
A bantam is a small breed. The large fowl are the larger birds that have and are still used for production. Most bantams are scaled down models of large fowl and were developed for the pleasure of show.
What do chickens eat? (Download .pdf)
Heritage breeds of chicken (especially heavy or dual purpose breeds) require a more nutritionally complete feed ration than their commercial counterparts, in order to fully achieve their potential size and productivity. Many of the common rations found in feed stores are formulated for commercial hybrid birds which are selected to grow well with less protein in their diets. Often producers can find appropriate levels of protein for Heritage chicks in game bird or turkey starter and grower diets.
To best manage the nutritional requirements of Heritage chickens the following feeding schedule is recommended:
Hatch to 8 weeks of age: approximately 26-28% protein content game bird starter ration.
8 weeks of age to 12 weeks of age: approximately 22-24% protein content game bird grower ration.
12 weeks to until point of lay (24 weeks): approximately 18-20% protein content layer/broiler grower ration.
Point of lay (24 weeks) to end of laying cycle: approximately 16-18% protein content layer ration. A little higher protein content keeps the bird healthier in times of heat/cold stress, and better maintains condition of the heavier bodied heritage laying hens. The layer ration has a higher calcium percentage than the grower ration at a max of 8% and a minimum of 5%.
Breeder ration: When collecting eggs for hatching from breeding stock attention to detail in nutrition is especially important and the addition of a nutrient/probiotic supplement can assist in increasing fertility and hatchability. Overall, feeding the breeder flock should fall into the general guidelines for the layer flock at approximately 16-18% protein content layer ration, with calcium at a max of 8% and a minimum of 5%.
Do I need a coop?
Coops are a wise investment as they keep your flock safe from nighttime predators. Before acquiring chickens, learn what predators might be in your area and prepare accordingly.In The Livestock Conservancy Turkey Manual, Chapter 8 is called "Protecting Heritage Turkeys from Predators." This is a good place to start. Resources about coop and fence building can be found in many of the published resources at the bottom of this page.
I currently have chickens and would like to add turkeys. Can they be raised in the same area?
It is generally not a good idea to raise chickens and turkeys together. Turkeys can contract a disease commonly known as “blackhead” from infected chickens. The protozoa that cause the disease, Histomonas meleagridis, does not negatively affect chickens, but can be lethal to turkeys. However, if you know your ground is free of the protozoa and your chickens and turkeys are healthy you should have no problem running chickens and turkeys together.
What is the American Poultry Association?
The APA is the oldest agricultural organization in North America. They develop, revise and maintain the descriptions - known as Standards - for poultry. The APA publishes the American Standard of Perfection that contains all of the standards and a wealth of information that will help breeders.
How do I keep my birds healthy?
Be an excellent poultry husband. That is old language for take very good care of your flock. When they are chicks, you have replaced their mother. Take care of them with the same consideration and concern you would have for any newborn. Keep them warm, clean, and dry. Give them nutritious food and clean water. As they grow, keep your standards high and you will be rewarded with healthy birds. If you do get a disease in your flock, be careful not to track it to your friends flock. Develop and follow a biosecurity plan for your farm before you get your first chick. If you already have a flock, start now. There is no time like the present. The Livestock Conservancy has developed some biosecurity materials to help breeders and raisers keep their flocks healthy.
For breeders, it is wise to have your birds tested by the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) for several infectious diseases, including pullorum and typhoid. NPIP is interested in keeping the national flock healthy. This testing is simple and free. Each state manages the implementation of NPIP within its borders. Contact your state vet for more information.
If commercial layer feed is optimized for commercial hens in production, is there any danger in feeding such a high-calcium feed to heritage breeds that lay significantly fewer eggs (or to hens that aren't laying for several months during winter?) Can mature chickens excrete excess calcium without health problems? (Answer courtesy of Donna Carver, NC State Extension)
Calcium needs of different types of poultry can be very confusing. First of all, excess calcium can damage the kidneys of birds causing renal (kidney) failure and/or gout. While the reproductive tract is not affected directly, birds with renal disease are not likely to be good layers or to lay at all.
Calcium utilization by all creatures is dependent on phosphorus and vitamin D as well. Feeding birds the proper amount of calcium and phosphorus is tricky because they deposit so much calcium in their egg shells. Basically, young birds need calcium and phosphorus sufficient to build a strong skeleton. Grower feeds are ideal for this and layer feeds should not be fed to chicks due to there being an excess of calcium which must be excreted. Switching to a layer diet is important just prior to or at onset of lay. The calcium requirement goes up quickly when egg shells are being produced. If there is not sufficient calcium circulating in the bloodstream hens will remove calcium from their bones to deposit on the eggshells. Layer mash should work well for providing needed calcium during lay.
As for heritage breeds who do not lay eggs as frequently as industrial leghorns, you need to provide additional calcium but may not need the levels found in layer diets developed for commercial layers. You might consider these breeds "breeders" in terms of nutritional needs. You can ask your feed supplier for a diet that would be used for "broiler breeders". These birds lay fewer eggs than standard industrial birds but have calcium levels sufficient to support strong eggshells and developing bones in the embyros. One thing to consider is that heritage breeds have egg shells that contain more calcium (thicker) than those that you find in the grocery store, so they are likely using more calcium per egg than commercial layers.
The American Poultry Association, PO Box 306 Burgettstown PA 15021 724-729-3459
Poultry Press, PO Box 542 Connersville, Indiana 47331, 765-827-0932
American Pastured Poultry Producers Association. PO Box 87, Boyd, WI 54726, 888-662-7772
Eggs and Chickens by John Vivian.A Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin.
Building Chicken Coops by Gail Damerow. A Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin.
Chicken Coops: 45 Building Plans for Housing Your Flock by Judy Pangman.
The Chicken Health Handbook by Gail Damerow.
Basic Butchering of Livestock & Game by John J. Mettler, Jr., DVM.
Chicken Assessment for Improving Productivity by The Livestock Conservancy Conservancy. 2008.
This publication shows breeders how to determine which birds in their flocks are the most productive and should kept for breeding. Individuals following these guidelines can improve the overall quality of their flocks within 3 – 5 years.
Biosecurity materials are available from many sources. The Livestock Conservancy has developed several tools that are considered among the best available.
The Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program has developed a wealth of information. Some of this is published in book form. Other is available as on-line reports from SARE funded grants.
Sand Hill Preservation Center Catalog. Annual. It contains a wealth of data on each breed including such things as egg size, rate of lay, etc. Available from Sand Hill
American Standard of Perfection. American Poultry Association. Contains the standards for chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys.
APA Yearbook. American Poultry Association. Annual. Contains advertisements with contact information for breed clubs and breeders of purebred poultry.